January 10, 1573

Birth of Simon Marius (1573-1624) in Gunzenhausen, Germany. Marius was the astronomer who named the four largest moons of Jupiter. He was one of the first astronomers to use a telescope, the first to report the spiral nebula in Andromeda and one of the first to note sunspots.


January 10, 1785

Death of Heinrich Wilhelm Stiegel in Charming Forge, PA (born near Cologne, Germany). Stiegel immigrated to Philadelphia in 1750. There he built an ironworks and soon expanded to a second ironworks in Lancaster. At the boycott of British imports he expanded his manufacture of window glass and bottles at a company he founded called the American Flint Glassworks. He was highly successful and became known for his mansions, servants and high life style. As economic conditions deteriorated with the approach of the war with England, however, his fortunes declined. By 1774 he was in debtors prison.

January 10, 1797      Annette-Droste-H

Birth of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff (1797-1848) in Hülshoff, Germany. She was one of the leading writers of the 19th century. She is most noted for her poetry, Gedichte (1838) and Das geistliche Jahr (1851). Her novella, Das Judenbuch (1842) is also highly respected.

January 10, 1847

Birth of Jacob Schiff in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Schff immigrated to the United States in 1865 where he would become one of America’s leading railroad bankers. He was the head of the investment bank, Kuhn, Loeb and Company. His financial backing led to Edward Harriman taking control of the Union Pacific Railroad. He later backed Harriman in his struggle with James J. Hill and J. P. Morgan for control of the Northern Pacific Railroad. In his later years he became a philanthropist and was a major donor to Harvard and Cornell universities and to the American Red Cross.

January 10, 1866


Birth of Karl Aschoff (1866-1942) in Berlin. Aschoff was a pathologist who had studied at the University of Bonn and taught at the University of Freiburg. He discovered phagocytes (cells which ingest foreign substances) and Aschoff’s bodies (nodules in the heart related to the rheumatic process).

January 10, 1880

Birth of Grock (stage name of Charles Wettach) in Reconvilier, Switzerland. Grock was a circus clown and later a stage comedian of great popularity. His autobiography, Die Memoiren des Königs der Clowns, was published in 1956.

January 10, 1890

Death of Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger in Munich, Germany. Döllinger was a Roman Catholic priest, a professor of canon law and a church historian in Munich. When the First Vatican Council of 1869-1870 defined the infallibility of the pope Döllinger could not accept the doctrine. He joined the Altkatholiken who broke with the Vatican after the council. His writing on the subject of papal infallibility was listed on the Roman Catholic Index of Forbidden Books and he was excommunicated in 1871.

January 10, 1920

The Versailles Treaty takes force.

January 10, 1949



Death of Erich Dagobert von Drygalski in Königsberg, Germany (now in Russia). A geographer and glaciologist, Drygalski led an expedition to the Antarctic from 1901-1903 and published the results of the findings in Deutsche Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903. The 20 volume work appeared between 1905 and 1931. Drygalski was a professor at the University of Munich.






Christmas Day is a public holiday in Germany on December 25. Many people spend the day with their family. Large meals with traditional foods are served and Christmas decorations are displayed. German Christmas decorations include nutcrackers, Christmas pyramids, and cribs.


What Do People Do?

People generally spend Christmas Day with family members or close friends. Some attend church services and many sing traditional Christmas carols. A large meal is traditionally eaten in the afternoon or early evening. Typical dishes include:

  • Roast goose or duck stuffed with apples, chestnuts, onions or prunes.
  • Red cabbage with onions and apple.
  • Boiled potatoes.
  • Dumplings.

People also eat turkey, beef, venison or wild boar in some parts of Germany.


Public Life

Christmas Day is a public holiday in Germany. Post offices, banks, stores and businesses are closed. However, stores in some tourist areas may be open and stores at railway stations, airports and along highways are usually open.

There are some restrictions on selling alcohol, public performances and dancing. Public transport services may run as usual, at a reduced service or no service depending on where one lives or intends to travel.

german tree


Traditional Christmas decorations include:

  • Christmas trees.
  • Small candles or electric lights.
  • Wooden nutcrackers.
  • Incense burners in various shapes.
  • Cribs with figures representing Mary, Joseph, Jesus, the shepherds and the three wise men.
  • Gingerbread houses decorated with sweets.
  • Christmas pyramids (three-dimensional scenes that are turned by a fan driven by candle heat).

Schwibbogen (decorative arc-shaped candle holders) are displayed in the Ore Mountains in Saxony. Each candle holder is made of a single piece of wood or metal and holds more candles on top of an arc. The arc is filled with figures to create a scene. Some scenes represent aspects of the Christmas story, while others display local traditions or events.

Sweet snacks are popular at Christmas. Traditional treats include: Plätzchen (flat biscuits covered in sugar frosting); Lebkuchen (gingerbread); Pfeffernüsse (gingerbread covered in sugar frosting and small candies); Stollen (a rich bread filled with dried fruit and a marzipan roll); and Spekulatius (small cookies flavored with cinnamon, nutmeg and other spices).











An Advent calendar is a special calendar used to count the days of Advent in anticipation of Christmas. … The Advent calendar was first used by German Lutherans in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In Germany the time from December 1st to December 24th is called “Adventszeit”, which means the time before Christmas Eve. … This day in Germany many families set up an Advent wreath, or Adventskranz on the first Advent Sunday (the fourth before Christmas) to start the Advent season.

Many families in Germany put an Advent wreath on the living room table the fourth Sunday before Christmas. The wreaths have four large candles and, traditionally, pinecones and berries. As lights are dimmed, the whole family gathers around the wreath.download (1)

The four weeks leading up to Christmas Eve are a happy time – at least for those who believe in the beautiful history of Christmas and willing to make this time of the year even more charming. This day in Germany many families set up an Advent wreath, or Adventskranz on the first Advent Sunday (the fourth before Christmas) to start the Advent season. A typical Advent wreath is made of evergreen branches and decorated with red-green tapes, pine cones and four candles, one for each week of Advent. Traditional families still gather around the wreath on each Advent Sunday to light the next candle and sing Christmas carols. This was even more important in the past, when the Christmas tree was usually reserved for a special unveiling only on Christmas Eve. Until then, the Advent wreath provided the evergreen look and special festive aroma in the house.



visit germany in the winter
The first major snowfall of winter in Berlin

The first major snow of the season in Berlin was magical. The skies turned blue, the kids grabbed their sleds, and good vibes are felt all around.   There is so much to do in Berlin, regardless of the season and the weather, that I’ve made it my home for the past five years. This quirky and gritty city is like an onion with endless layers.

Christmas Markets

visit germany in the winter
They’re so much fun!

Christmas markets in Germany shows how well the traditions are kept alive.  Locals dressed proudly (and rightfully so!) in olden-style clothing at the end of the Miner’s Wintermarkt, as part of the procession called the Mettenschicht at Düppenweiler. Germany’s Christmas markets are not only festive and fun, but also a great way to take a closer look at the locals’ cultures and traditions. Plus, they have excellent food and beverages.

Gingerbread of Aachen

Aachen Christmas market is an absolute favorite. Starting from November 23 – December 23 every year, the market welcomes visitors with beautiful lights and irresistible gingerbread aroma.

The Aachen bakeries are famed for their gingerbread and marzipan bread that are exported to all over the world. However, at the Christmas market, they are freshly baked and taste even better! You know they take their gingerbread seriously when there’s literally a 6m tall gingerbread man mascot at the market. Delicious mulled wine, a warm, perfectly-spiced, amaretto drink that’s highly addictive, is also sold at the market.

Black Forest

visit germany in the winter
No footprints ahead of me, only behind me

Having associated the Black Forest with terms like ‘magical, mystical’, and delicious – meaning the cake, the Black Forest is a winter wonderland.

Dazzling Light Displays

visit germany in the winter
At the Kölner Dom in Cologne

Germany does Christmas right. Pictured here is the Christmas market at the Cologne Cathedral.  Most major cities in Germany will have beautiful Christmas lights displays at the bigger Christmas markets, but be sure to check out the one at the Botanischer Garten in Berlin.

Botanischer Garten

Inspired by London’s famous Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, Berlin’s very own botanic garden now lights up every November – December, making the area a beautiful winter wonderland.

An Awesome Ice Rink at Zeche Zollverein in Essen

visit germany in the winter
At the old coke plant outside of Essen

Zeche Zollverein is a museum, an event venue, and one of the only coal mines in the world that’s declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its beautiful architecture. Each winter, you can ice skate on its long ice rink and enjoy delicious meals at its restaurant.

A White Christmas

visit germany in the winter
Catching snowflakes

If you grew up somewhere without winter, then you’ve never had a white Christmas.

Snow Coated Castles

visit germany in the winter
Hohenzollern Sigmaringen

Germany is the fairytale castle capital of the world. The already stunning castles look even more magical in the winter, and have you really been to Germany in the winter if you have not seen a castle and have a little Frozen moment yourself?

Winter Sports

ski packing
Go skiing!

Germany has groomed some of the best skiers and ice hockey players out there, so it’s no wonder that there are plenty of winter sports opportunities in the country.

The Berlin Treehouse

visit germany in the winter
Fabulously quirky

A former dump, bordering the old Berlin wall, and a symbol of Berlin’s counterculture, the treehouse is a sight in the winter.

When the wall fell, Osman Kalin who built this inventive abode was threatened with eviction (the building wasn’t exactly up to code, and the land wasn’t exactly his), but thanks to the neighboring church deciding to give him the land, and the rallying neighborhood protesters, he still lives there today.

German Dog Breeds: Doberman

Doberman  is a medium-large breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector from Germany, for his own protection. Here’s how it happened.

In 1890, Karl Friedrich Louis Doberman was a tax collector in Apolda, Germany. Unsurprisingly, he wasn’t very popular. But luck was on his side: he owned the local dog pound, where he was able to combine a long list of breeds to create a guard dog to protect him. After combining big, fearsome breeds like the German Pinscher, Rottweiler, Greyhound, Great Dane, Weimeraner, German Shorthaired Pointer, Old German Shepherd Dog, and more, Doberman created his prototype: a dog that was strong, fast, durable, loyal, intelligent, and, when he needed to be, ferocious.

After years of development, the end result was what we know today as the Doberman Pinscher, named after the breed’s creator. Made an official breed in the United States 1908, the Doberman has a long history of military and police service. He served as the official War Dog of the US Marine Corps during World War II as a sentry, messenger, and the breed was made famous for its role in Pacific battles in Okinawa and Guam. The Doberman was also used for search-and-rescue when the World Trade Center towers collapsed in 2001.

Now it is one of the most loving, loyal, and protective pets a family can have. 

The Doberman has a long muzzle and stands on its toes (not the pads) and is not usually heavy-footed. Ideally, they have an even and graceful gait. Traditionally, the ears are cropped and posted and the tail is docked. However, in some countries it is illegal to do so. Dobermans have markings on the chest, paws/legs, muzzle, above the eyes, and underneath the tail.

Dobermans are well known as intelligent, alert and tenaciously loyal companions and guard dogs. Personality varies a great deal between each individual, but if taken care of and trained properly they tend to be loving and devoted companions. The Doberman is driven, strong and sometimes stubborn. Owning one requires commitment and care, but if trained well, they can be wonderful family dogs. With a consistent approach they can be easy to train and will learn very quickly. If properly trained, they can be excellent with children.

This athletic dog needs brisk walking every day and all-out running as often as possible. Too little exercise and too little companionship can lead to restlessness and other behavioral problems. Mental exercise (advanced obedience, agility, tracking, Schutzhund) is just as important to this thinking breed.

Though some Dobermans are big softies who love everyone, most are reserved with strangers and protective of their family. Early and extensive socialization is mandatory to avoid either shyness or sharpness. Some Dobermans are dominant with other dogs. Some are confirmed cat chasers, while others love small animals.

Some excel in advanced obedience competition, while others are hardheaded and will test to find their place in the pecking order. Calm, consistent leadership is a must, and obedience training must be upbeat and persuasive rather than sharp. This breed does not tolerate teasing or mischief.

How did Halloween Come to Germany


In the mid-1990s, few in Germany had ever heard of Halloween, and even fewer celebrated it. Now, it’s a €150 million a year industry. The holiday’s success can be traced to a single marketing genius.

Most in Germany have never heard of Dieter Tschorn. And even fewer will be particularly concerned by the fact that he isn’t planning on dressing up for Halloween this year. But if one is looking for an explanation as to why millions of other Germans will be carving pumpkins, putting on costumes and begging for candy door-to-door, Tschorn is a good place to start. After all, more than anyone else, he is responsible for Halloween’s existence — and growing popularity — in Germany.

“In 1994, Halloween was largely unknown in Germany,” Tschorn says. “But then we began promoting the event. And it took off.”

Tschorn is a public relations consultant who went into business for himself in 1982. More to the point, however, he is also the spokesman for a division in Germany’s toy-making industry association responsible for Carnival, that annual season of costumed mayhem that culminates 40 days before Easter.

Back in the early 1990s, Carnival was cancelled in Germany as a result of the first Gulf War — and those who make their living selling costumes and party supplies took a major hit. But the industry also had another important design flaw. Whereas the Carnival season always begins on Nov. 11, the timing of Easter can vary widely. Last year, for example, Easter fell on March 23, making the Carnival season just 87 days long, the shortest it had been since 1913.

“The shorter Carnival is, the lower our turnover — each week less represents a 5-percent drop in sales,” Tschorn said. “We needed some consistency, which led to the idea to introduce Halloween in Germany.”

It seems to have worked. In 2007, 4,600 tons of pumpkins were sold in Germany, says Tschorn. One can buy Halloween bread at the baker’s, Halloween sausage at the butcher’s, Halloween cocktails at the bar and, of course, Halloween candy in the nation’s supermarkets. Tens of thousands of German children now go door-to-door, holding out their bags and saying “sweet or sour,” the German version of trick-or-treat.


The Halloween promoter says that the holiday has become an industry worth around €160 million in Germany, in third place behind Christmas and Easter. In 1994, that number was close to zero. This year, the costume industry expects Halloween-related consumption to be 5 percent more than last year.

“By the end of 1998, Halloween had become something of a cult,” Tschorn said. “It began growing all on its own.”

Nevertheless, many in Germany aren’t nearly as excited as Tschorn is about the place Halloween has managed to carve out for itself in the country’s social calendar. The Protestant Church is particularly irked that October 31st, the day on which Martin Luther launched the Reformation, is now more associated with a pagan holiday imported from Ireland via America than for Germany’s own contribution to religious history.

German Dog Breeds: Great Dane

The Great Dane is a German breed of domestic dog known for its giant size. Though Irish Wolfhounds are taller as a breed, the world’s tallest dog is a Great Dane. Anyone who’s spent time with one also knows that they’re the world’s biggest lapdogs — literally. These puppies are lounge-y and large, with paws as big as an adult’s hands.

A Great Dane is truly a great dog breed — large and noble, commonly referred to as a gentle giant or as the “Apollo of dogs.” Apollo is the Greek god of the sun, the brightest fixture in the sky.
The Great Dane certainly holds stature in the dog world, but though he looks terribly imposing, in reality he’s one of the best-natured dogs around. For all of his size, a Great Dane is a sweet, affectionate pet. He loves to play and is gentle with children.

Despite their names, Great Danes are not from Denmark — the Germans bred Great Danes for hunting and guarding. Some also served in the military. But over the last century, breeders have diminished their prey drive and aggression. Today’s Great Dane will take the couch over combat any time.

This large-sized and medium-energy breed can grow to between 110-180 pounds and lives an average of 7-10 years.

As puppies, Great Danes can knock over small tables and large children. As adults they can clear a coffee table with a swipe of a tail. Although he may sometimes seem like a bull in a china shop, the biggest thing about the Great Dane isn’t his formidable size (up to 175 pounds), but his heart. He may have been bred to hunt ferocious boars and guard estates, but these days, this tall and elegant dog is better suited to life as a lover, not a fighter. If you’re looking for a gentle giant, this may well be the dog for you.

His size may seem to require its own zip code, but the Dane’s calm nature makes him more suitable to apartment living than many a more anxious or active breed. While puppyhood may be a challenge in an apartment, a well-socialized and well-trained Dane will be perfectly content to have one good 10 or 20-minute walk a day for his exercise.

Because Great Danes have protective natures when their families are involved, it’s essential to teach young dogs not to jump up on people and that nipping or any act of aggression is not allowed. What tends to be laughed off in a tiny dog is no laughing matter in a full-grown dog of this size. Let the Dane’s size itself serve as a deterrent and never encourage aggressive behavior.

As tall as 32 inches at the shoulder, Danes tower over most other dogs—and when standing on their hind legs, they are taller than most people. These powerful giants are the picture of elegance and balance, with the smooth and easy stride of born noblemen. The coat comes in different colors and patterns, perhaps the best-known being the black-and-white patchwork pattern known as “harlequin.”

Despite their sweet nature, Danes are alert home guardians. Just the sight of these gentle giants is usually enough to make intruders think twice. But those foolish enough to mistake the breed’s friendliness for softness will meet a powerful foe of true courage and spirit. Patient with kids, Danes are people-pleasers who make friends easily.

German Dog Breeds: Boxer

The Boxer is a medium-sized, short-haired breed of dog, developed in Germany. The coat is smooth and tight-fitting, colors are fawn or brindled, with or without white markings, and white. Boxers have broad, short skulls, have a square muzzle, an underbite, very strong jaws, and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey.

Boxer was bred in Germany from a now-extinct and larger breed of dog called the Bullenbeisser and the Bärenbeisser, commonly used for hunting. When crossed with the English Bulldog (as a result, they have the characteristic square jaw and squared shoulders), the breed was first brought to show in the 1890s.

These dogs were used by German forces during the world wars as guard dogs and couriers. Besides, their function was to pull carts, to fight and to round up livestock. They later became popular theater and circus dogs.  The breed became internationally popular in the 1950s.

Nowadays Boxers are very useful as police dogs as well as service, guide and therapy functions. Boxers have a wide use in military work too. An excellent watchdog, the Boxer will restrain an intruder. They are extremely athletic. This dog needs to go on a daily pack walk. Daily mental and physical exercise is important. They are easy to train (to socialize). This breed typically lives for 10 to 12 years.

The Boxers’ body is compact and powerful with square-shaped proportions. This popular breed of dog is mid-sized (size: 21 – 25 inches, weight: 53 – 70 pounds). They have round, brawny necks that are well-muscled. The head is in proportion with the body. Their front limbs are straight and their tails are carried high. They have long, muscular legs and deep chests for resonant barking. The tails of this breed are usually docked.

The nose is large and black with very open nostrils. The Boxer’s glossy, close-fitting, short-haired coat can be fawn, brindle, red, white, tan, mahogany, and black often with white markings. Dark markings are very likely around the face and eyes. The eyes are dark brown. The ears are set high, either cropped or kept natural, very often surgically altered to make them stand up.

The ideal Boxer is loyal, smart, easily trained, energetic, outgoing, protective and fun-loving.

The main features of a Boxer’s temperament are:

  • Loyalty;
  • Calmness;
  • Fun-loving;
  • Loving and caring with their families (very good with children);
  • Intelligence;
  • Trainability;
  • Strong will;
  • Good-nature;
  • Curiosity;
  • Friskiness;
  • Sense of humor;
  • Courage.          

Boxers are known to jump up and use their front paws as if they are boxing.  It is one of the reasons of the breed’s name. Boxers like to use their front paws to get into things and move things from place to place, they like to have people’s attention and are also known as the “clown of dogs”. The Boxer’s nature is to protect its owner and his family, they are excellent family pets. These dogs are always eager to work and play. Human leadership is necessary for Boxers. This breed is good for competitive obedience.

They should be trained and properly socialized from the young age. This breed requires a dominant owner and firm, regular training. The main aim is to achieve a pack leader status. Boxers should be sure that all other humans are higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way to succeed. If they do not take their owner seriously they will be sneaky and hard to control.

German food: 20 of the best things to eat

1. Königsberger klopse

Named after the former East Prussian capital of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad in Russia), this tasty dish of meatballs in a creamy white sauce with capers is beloved by grandmothers and chefs alike.
The meatballs are traditionally made with minced veal, onion, eggs, anchovies, pepper and other spices. The sauce’s capers and lemon juice give this filling comfort food a surprisingly elegant finish.
In the German Democratic Republic, officials renamed the dish kochklopse (boiled meatballs) to avoid any reference to its namesake, which had been annexed by the Soviet Union. Today it’s possible to find königsberger klopse under their traditional name in most German restaurants, but they are especially popular in Berlin and Brandenburg.

2. Maultaschen

Maultaschen from Swabia are a lot like ravioli but bigger. They are typically palm-sized, square pockets of dough with fillings that run the gamut from savory to sweet and meaty to vegetarian.
A traditional combination is minced meat, bread crumbs, onions and spinach — all seasoned with salt, pepper and parsley. They’re often simmered and served with broth instead of sauce for a tender, creamier treat, but are sometimes pan-fried and buttered for extra richness.
Today you can find maultaschen all over Germany (even frozen in supermarkets) but they’re most common in the south.
Here the delicious dumplings have become so important that in 2009, the European Union recognized Maultaschen as a regional specialty and marked the dish as significant to the cultural heritage of the state of Baden-Württemberg.

3. Labskaus

Labskaus is not the most visually appealing dish, but a delectable mess that represents the seafaring traditions of northern Germany like no other. In the 18th and 19th centuries, ship provisions were mostly preserved fare, and the pink slop of labskaus was a delicious way of preparing them.
Image result for photo of Labskaus
Salted beef, onions, potatoes and pickled beetroot are all mashed up like porridge and served with pickled gherkins and rollmops (see below). It has long been a favorite of Baltic and North Sea sailors.
Today the dish is served all over northern Germany, but especially in Bremen, Kiel and Hamburg. And while on modern ships fridges have been installed, it remains popular as a hangover cure.

4. Sausages

There is no Germany without sausages.
There are countless cured, smoked and other varieties available across wurst-loving Germany, so, for this list we will focus on some of the best German street food: bratwurst, or fried sausages.
There are more than 40 varieties of German bratwurst. Fried on a barbecue or in the pan, and then served in a white bread roll with mustard on the go, or with potato salad or sauerkraut as the perfect accompaniment for German beer.
Some of the most common bratwurst are:
Nürnberger rostbratwurst that is small in size and mostly comes from the grill.
— Thüringer rostbratwurst from Thuringia, which is quite spicy. Thuringia is also the home of the first German bratwurst museum, which opened in 2006.
The most popular incarnation of bratwurst, however, is the next item on our list.

5. Currywurst

Practically synonymous with German cuisine since 1945, currywurst is commonly attributed to Herta Heuwer, a Berlin woman who in 1949 managed to obtain ketchup and curry powder from British soldiers, mixed them up and served the result over grilled sausage, instantly creating a German street food classic.
Image result for photo of Currywurst
Today boiled and fried sausages are used, and currywurst remains one of the most popular sausage-based street foods in Germany, especially in Berlin, Cologne and the Rhine-Ruhr, where it’s usually served with chips and ketchup or mayonnaise or a bread roll.
Not the most sophisticated of dishes, but a filling street snack born out of necessity about which all of Germany is still mad: some 800 million are consumed a year.

6. Döner kebab

Döner kebab was introduced to Germany by Turkish immigrant workers coming here in the 1960s and ’70s. One of the earliest street sellers was Kadir Nurman, who started offering döner kebab sandwiches at West Berlin’s Zoo Station in 1972, from the where the dish first took both West and East Berlin by storm and then the rest of Germany.
From its humble Berlin beginnings when a döner kebab only contained meat, onions and a bit of salad, it developed into a dish with abundant salad, vegetables (sometimes grilled), and a selection of sauces from which to choose.
Image result for photo of Döner kebab
Veal and chicken spits are widely used as is the ever-popular lamb, while vegetarian and vegan versions are becoming increasingly common. In 2011, there were more than 16,000 establishments selling döner kebabs in Germany, with yearly sales of €3.5 billion sandwiches.

7. Schnitzel

Some might argue that schnitzel is Austrian and not German, but its origins are actually Italian.
Image result for photo of KäsespätzleThis controversy hasn’t stopped the breaded and fried meat cutlets to become popular everywhere in Germany, however. While the Austrian or Vienna schnitzel is by law only made with veal, the German version is made with tenderized pork or turkey and has become a staple of most traditional restaurants.
Whereas Vienna schnitzel is served plain, Germans love to ladle a variety of sauces over their schnitzel. Jägerschnitzel comes with mushroom sauce, zigeunerschnitzel with bell pepper sauce and rahmschnitzel is served with a creamy sauce.
All go well with fried potatoes and cold lager or a Franconian apple wine.

8. Käsespätzle

Spätzle originally come from Baden-Württemberg. Essentially a sort of pasta, the noodles are a simple combination of eggs, flour, salt and often a splash of fizzy water to fluff up the dough. Traditionally served as a side to meat dishes or dropped into soups, it can be spiced up by adding cheese: the käsespätzle variant is an extremely popular dish in southern Germany, especially Swabia, Bavaria and the Allgäu region.
Hot spätzle and grated granular cheese are layered alternately and are finally decorated with fried onions. After adding each layer, the käsespätzle will be put into the oven to avoid cooling off and to ensure melting of cheese. Käsespätzle is a popular menu item in beer gardens in summer and cozy Munich pubs in winter.

9. Rouladen

Rouladen is a delicious blend of bacon, onions, mustard and pickles wrapped together in sliced beef or veal. Vegetarian and other meat options are also now widely available but the real deal is rinderrouladen (beef rouladen), a popular dish in western Germany and the Rhine region.
Image result for photo of Rouladen
This is a staple of family dinners and special occasions. They are usually served with potato dumplings, mashed potatoes and pickled red cabbage. A red wine gravy is an absolute requirement to round off the dish.

10. Sauerbraten

Sauerbraten is regarded as one Germany’s national dishes and there are several regional variations in Franconia, Thuringia, Rhineland, Saarland, Silesia and Swabia.
This pot roast takes quite a while to prepare, but the results, often served as Sunday family dinner, are truly worth the work. Sauerbraten (literally “sour roast”) is traditionally prepared with horse meat, but these days beef and venison are increasingly used.
Image result for photo of  Sauerbraten
Before cooking, the meat is marinated for several days in a mixture of red wine vinegar, herbs and spices. Drowned in a dark gravy made with beetroot sugar sauce and rye bread to balance the sour taste of the vinegar, sauerbraten is then traditionally served with red cabbage, potato dumplings or boiled potatoes.

11. Himmel un ääd

This is another messy and not necessarily optically appealing dish, but nevertheless definitely worth trying. Himmel und erde, or himmel un ääd in Cologne (both mean “Heaven and Earth”) is popular in the Rhineland, Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The dish consists of black pudding, fried onions and mashed potatoes with apple sauce.
Image result for photo of Himmel un ääd
It has been around since the 18th century, and these days is a beloved staple of the many Kölsch breweries and beer halls in Cologne, where it goes perfectly well with a glass or three of the popular beer.

12. Zwiebelkuchen and federweisser

October is the month to taste the first wines of the year in Germany, and a well-known culinary treat in the south is federweisser und zwiebelkuchen (partially fermented young white wine and onion tart).
Federweisser literally means “feather white” and is made by adding yeast to grapes, allowing fermentation to proceed rapidly. Once the alcohol level reaches 4%, federweisser is sold. It is mostly enjoyed near where it is produced. Because of the fast fermentation, it needs to be consumed within a couple days of being bottled. In addition, the high levels of carbonation means that it cannot be bottled and transported in airtight containers.
Image result for photo of Zwiebelkuchen and federweisser
In most towns and cities along the Mosel River, people flock to marketplaces and wine gardens in early October to sip a glass of federweisser and feast crispy, freshly made onion tarts called zwiebelkuchen. Because of its light and sweet taste, it pairs well with the savory, warm onion cake.

13. Saumagen

World politics in a pig’s stomach. Saumagen was made famous by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who (like the dish) hailed from the Palatinate. Kohl loved saumagen and served it to visiting dignitaries including Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton.
The literal translation of this dish is “sow’s stomach,” but saumagen is a lot less curious than its name implies.
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Somewhat resembling Scottish haggis, it is prepared by using the stomach of a pig (or an artificial one) as a casing for the stuffing made from pork, potatoes, carrots, onions, marjoram, nutmeg and white pepper.
It is then sliced and pan-fried or roasted in the oven, and, as Kohl knew, goes down perfectly well with sauerkraut, mashed potatoes and a dry white wine from the Palatinate.

14. Pinkel mit grünkohl

Pinkel mit grünkohl, or cooked kale and sausage, is a delicious winter comfort food eaten mainly in northwest Germany, especially the region around Oldenburg, Bremen and Osnabrück as well as East Frisia and Friesland.
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The cooked kale is mixed with mustard and bacon, and the “pinkel” sausage (named after the pinky) is made of bacon, groats of oats or barley, beef suet, pig lard, onions, and salt and pepper.
Germans sometimes celebrate winter with a traditional so-called “Grünkohlfahrt,” where family and friends go on a brisk hike accompanied by schnapps and finished off with a warm kale dinner in a country inn.

15. Spargel

Germans are mad about white asparagus. As soon as harvest time arrives around mid-April, asparagus dishes appear on the menus of restaurants all over Germany, from Flensburg to Munich and Aachen to Frankfurt.
This is spargelzeit, the time of the asparagus, and it is celebrated with passion. During spargelzeit, the average German eats asparagus at least once a day. This adds up to a national total of over 70,000 tons of asparagus consumed per year.
No one can truly say where this fixation with white asparagus comes from, but the first document that mentions the cultivation of this vegetable around the city of Stuttgart dates to the 1686. There are spargel festivals, a spargel route in Baden-Württemberg and countless stalls along the roads of Germany selling the “white gold.”
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In restaurants, asparagus is boiled or steamed and served with hollandaise sauce, melted butter or olive oil. It comes wrapped in bacon or heaped upon schnitzel; as asparagus soup, fried asparagus, pancakes with herbs and asparagus, asparagus with scrambled eggs or asparagus with young potatoes. There is an audible sigh all over Germany when spargelzeit ends on June 24, St. John the Baptist Day.

16. Reibekuchen

Fried potato pancakes are so popular in Germany that we have more than 40 names for them. They are known as reibekuchen, kartoffelpuffer, reibeplätzchen, reiberdatschi, grumbeerpannekuche and so on and so on.
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Another quintessential German comfort and street food, reibekuchen are often served with apple sauce, on black pumpernickel rye bread or with treacle (a type of syrup).
They’re popular all year around: in Cologne and the Rhineland they are beloved of revelers during the Karneval festivities in spring, and all German Christmas markets have reibekuchen vendors where hundreds of litres of potato dough are being processed every day during the holiday season.

17. Rollmops

Rollmöpse (plural) are cooked or fried and then pickled herring fillets, rolled around a savory filling like a pickled gherkin or green olive with pimento, and have been served on the coasts since medieval times.
Becoming popular during the early 19th century when the long-range train network allowed pickled food to be transported, Rollmöpse have been a staple snack on German tables ever since.
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Rollmöpse are usually bought ready-to-eat in jars and are eaten straight, without unrolling, or on bread and sometimes with labskaus (see above). And like labskaus, they are commonly served as part of the German katerfrühstück or hangover breakfast.

18. Schwarzwälder kirschtorte

Germany has a vast variety of cakes, but among the most popular is the Schwarzwälder kirschtorte or Black Forest gateau.
The cake is not named after the Black Forest mountain range in southwestern Germany, but the speciality liquor of that region, Schwarzwälder kirsch, distilled from tart cherries.
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Allegedly created by Josef Keller in 1915 at Café Agner in Bonn in the Rhineland, it typically consists of several layers of chocolate sponge cake sandwiched with whipped cream and sour cherries, and then drizzled with kirschwasser. It is decorated with additional whipped cream, maraschino cherries and chocolate shavings.
Its popularity in Germany grew quickly and steadily after World War II, and it’s during this period that the kirschtorte starts appearing in other countries too, particularly on the British Isles.
Whatever the reason for its success, it is both perfect for kaffee und kuchen in a German cafe on a Sunday afternoon as well as dessert.

19. Käsekuchen

There are rarely any strawberries in German cheesecake (or any other fruits for that matter), and the base is surely not made from crackers but freshly made dough (or even without base, like in the East Prussian version).
The filling is made with low-fat quark instead of cream cheese and egg foam is added to give it more fluff, plus lemon and vanilla for some extra freshness.
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Maybe this purity and the focus on a handful of ingredients is why a version of cheesecake exits in almost every region of Germany: there’s käsekuchen, quarkkuchen, matzkuchen and even topfenkuchen in Austria.
Wherever you try it, you can be sure that it is the perfect treat with some added fresh cream and a hot cup of coffee.

20. Spaghettieis

This dessert is another immigrant legacy and is popular with German children.
Spaghettieis is an ice cream dish made to look like a plate of spaghetti. Vanilla ice cream is pressed through a modified noodle press or potato ricer, giving it the appearance of spaghetti. It is then placed over whipped cream and topped with strawberry sauce representing the tomato sauce and white chocolate shavings for the parmesan.
Besides the usual dish with strawberry sauce, there are also variations with dark chocolate ice cream and nuts available, resembling spaghetti carbonara instead of spaghetti bolognese.
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Spaghetti ice cream was invented in 1969 by Dario Fontanella, son of an ice cream-making Italian immigrant in Mannheim, Germany. Thankfully for us and perhaps unfortunately for Dario, he didn’t patent his spaghetti ice cream and it is today available at almost every ice cream parlor anywhere in Germany.
Dario did, however, receive the “Bloomaulorden,” a medal bestowed by the city of Mannheim, for his culinary services in 2014.